Stream channel adjustments in the Smith – Muddy River drainage after the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruptions
Stream channel response to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens has varied widely. Stream channels that received only airfall deposits have shown no significant sedimentation following the eruption. In drainage basins that received both blast and airfall deposits, localized channel modification has been observed. However, as the blast/airfall deposits are predominately sand-sized, they have been quickly removed from the steep low-order channels surrounding the mountain with little net effect on pre-eruption channel morphology. Some subsequent channel modification has resulted in lowered gradient reaches downstream as sediment eroded from upstream hill slopes and stream channels has been redeposited in these reaches. Long-term effects in blast/airfall affected streams appear limited to channels subjected to debris torrents resulting from shallow-seated landsliding and breakup of in-channel debris jams.